Born For The Mat - A Kodokan Kata Textbook For Women

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Author: Keiko Fukuda
Pub: 1973
Pages: 139
Ranking:
Out of Print

 


The only thing stopping a solid 5 star rating is the rather exotic nature of this book. It covers just three kata, Seiryoku-Zenyo Kokumin Taiiku, Kodokan Joshi Goshin-Ho, and Ju-no-Kata. But if you want a reference book on kata, this book will be well worth whatever you pay for it. It is, unfortunately, so scarce that it rarely comes up for sale. It is perhaps easier to locate a copy of 'Canon of Judo' than this one!


                                   Contents
Preface ................................................... 3
What is Judo .............................................. 5
Women's Judo and Its Purposes ............................ 10
Footsteps of KODOKAN Joshi Judo .......................... 15
Keypoints of Judo Training ............................... 20
Judo Techniques .......................................... 22
Dojo, Dojo Etiquette, and Women's Judo-Gi ................ 26

Fundamentals ............................................. 30
   A. Posture ............................................ 30
   B. Methods of Salutation .............................. 31
   C. Advance and Retreat Body Movement .................. 33
   D. Ukemi (The Falling Ways) ........................... 34

Explanation of Kata ...................................... 43
Seiryoku-Zenyo Kokumin Taiiku
(Maximum Efficiency Physical Education) .................. 45
   I. Tandoku-Renshu (Solo Exercise) ..................... 45
  II. Sotai-Renshu (Dual Practice) ....................... 57
      A. Kime-Shiki (Forms of Decision) .................. 57
      B. Ju-Shiki (Forms of Gentleness) .................. 69

KODOKAN Joshi Goshin-Ho (KODOKAN Women's Self-Defense) ... 70
The Purpose of Women's Self-Defense ...................... 70
    Part I   Tai-Sabaki (Body Movement Exercises ......... 71
    Part II  Ridatsu-Ho (Methods of Escape) .............. 77
    Part III Seigo-Ho (Aggressive Defense Methods) ....... 83

Explanation of Ju-no-Kata *The Forms of Gentleness) ...... 92
    Ikkyo (Set I) ........................................ 95
    Nikyo (Set II) ...................................... 105
    Sankyo (Set III) .................................... 116

Women's Judo Training Methods ........................... 129
My Grandfather, Hachinosuke Fukuda ...................... 132
Motive for my Beginning Judo ............................ 135
Postscript .............................................. 137
Background of Authoress ................................. 139
Notice .................................................. 140

 

PREFACE

Recently many women Judoists, most of them with several years of Judo training, began to come to Japan - the Mecca of Judo - for further study at the KODOKAN. Although they could do some Randori, there were many who had not acquired thorough knowledge of the basic Kata (Forms of Judo). In Judo, Randori and Kata are both of equal importance and both are essential to all Judoists. In Kata, one studies the theories and concepts of defense and attack and, therefore, acquires actual knowledge of The methods of self- defense.

For over the past ten years, I have been writing a book about Kata for the sake of the many women Judoists around the world who may be unable to visit the KODOKAN. I have received many requests for such a book from students all over the world. Until recently, however, I had been exceedingly busy teaching in the United States, the Philippines, Australia, and Canada. Since 1967, I have settled down and have taught mostly in San Francisco and the Bay Area. At last I felt that I had the more time, both mentally and physically, to complete this hook. This book was designed to enable women Judo students from beginner to Shodan to study the three forms of Kata.

These Kata are the basic theories and concepts of Judo which are valuable to all serious Judo students as well as to women in general. They have been explained simply and easily in this book so that they be easily understood and practiced by everyone, whether layman or practitioner.

Randori techniques for women are exactly the same as for men, with the exception of Makikomi-waza, which is too dangerous for women. Women's Judo, therefore, can be taught by men instructors if no women instructors are available. This book is mainly about Kata for the women Judoists who cannot receive instructions from a qualified instructor. It is most desirable to have women instructors in the future in order to maintain the balance between Kata and Randori. By studying Ju-no-Kata (Forms of Gentleness), a student can acquire knowledge in all aspects of Judo, and this, therefore, contributes toward the improvement of Randori techniques. I have also decided to add some explanations of Ukemi (Falling Way) because it is the foundation of Judo and especially important.

I wish to express my heartfelt thanks for the encouragement given to me in writing this book by Professor Risei Kano, the President of the KODOKAN, I hope that this textbook will benefit as many students as possible. It is my sincere desire that through this book people throughout the world will begin to understand the true meaning of women's Judo.



WHAT IS JUDO?

Today, many people in the world have a tendency to think of Judo as just one of the sports in which the winner is decided merely by throwing, grappling, or choking the opponent. Judo was developed in Japan from fighting techniques which were practiced among warriors during the Civil War in the Middle Ages (this pcriod was similar to that of Europe from the twelfth to the sixteenth century). For this reason, it was very important to win because it was a matter of life or death in those days.

However, true Judo does not stop at techniques. The principle of true Judo is in how effectively one defends oneself against an attacking opponent by training one's body and mind rather than by merely defeating the opponent. In other words, Judo is for self-defense and not for attacking, and this objective is especially emphasized in Women's Judo.

In Japan, therefore, Judo isn't classified on the same level as the general fighting techniques, such as boxing. This fact is made clear, for example, in the following text, "Instructive Essentials in Judo for Junior, Senior High Schools and Higher Institutions" by the Ministry of Education. Text from the "Instructive Essentials in Judo":

1. Harmonious development of the body.
2. Improvement of the internal organs such as in the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems.
3. Mastery of basic physical ability from Judo techniques such as pulling, pushing, twisting, bending, swift dodging, rolling, etc. Development of adjustability of muscles, muscular nerves, and the buildup of a swift, skillful, and enduring body.
5. Development of abilities for quick and accurate judgement of opponents' moves and the ability to respond.
6. Understanding of sportmanship.
7. Development of attitudes necessary for good citizens, i.e. leadership, cooperativeness, positiveness, braveness, self-discipline, correctness of manners, loyalty, generosity, perseverance, and sympathy.
8. Learning of techniques of safeguarding by studying Judo.
9. Awakening of general knowledge and interests in Judo. Cultivation of attitude and habit to voluntarily enjoy Judo during moments of spare time.

While these instructions are mainly on the physical aspects of Judo, it is evident that these goals are also bassed on the improvement of the moral character of the individual as indicated in items 6 and 7 above.

It is important to emphasize that Judo is not a mere fighting technique but that its ultimate goal is to constantly develop a harmonious body and to train a sound mind." Judo may appear purely physical on the surface, but its true nature is the fulfillment of both physical and mental health. Because of the clarity of Judo philosophy which is lacking in other sports, I do not hesitate to point out that Judo, in this respect, surpasses other general sports. The concepts may sound rather abstract and difficult to understand for those whose cultural traditions are different than the Japanese and therefore, I will attempt to explain more specifically to the reader.

"Fundamental Natural Posture is the most fundamental form in Judo. This is a natural standing position, but it is not just standing absent-mindedly. One must maintain mental calmness and relax all the muscles of the body. When standing in this "Fundamental Natural Posture," this position enables one to counteract when attacked. Within its unpretentious pose, "Fundamental Natural Posture" stores limitless potential energy and possibilities when cultivated by training. After studying Judo for a short time, one realizes that this posture has important meaning, and one gains self-confidence realizing that one can counter-attack the opponent's move anytime under any circumstances. This self-confidence ultimately leads to one's mental reserve and helps to improve one's mental attitudes. Judo techniques are divided into three parts (throwing, holding, and hitting) and there are many variations to each technique. Mental reserve and self-confidence will become greater as one masters these techniques. It is important to note that Judo varies greatly from Jujitsu, especially in philosophy. Jujitsu in the Middle Ages in Japan placed all importance on defeating the opponents, as did all the other martial arts such as fencing, spear throwing, and archery. During the Middle Ages, there were constant battles among the feudal lords. It was no wonder that there was a strong demand for Jujitsu as an effective fighting technique. This was true even after the supreme power was in the hands of the TOKUGAWA SHOGUN (Tycoon) and the country was unified after the sixteenth century. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, however, Judo was newly created from Jujitsu, and more importance was put on self-defense rather than on destroying opponents. As Judo developed, more and more emphasis was put on conquering oneself since Judo is based on the philosophy that each technique in its outcome is related to the participant's mind. In the following chapter, I have outlined a brief history regarding the process of change from Jujitsu to Judo.



THE ORIGIN OF JUDO
After the revolution of 1868 in Japan, the TOKUGAWA SHOGUN was defeated and a constitutional monarchy, such as in England, was born. It was only natural that there were a considerable number of people who could not cope with the stream of new changes after the revolution. Among them were the professional Jujitsuka who up to then served the TOKUGAWA SHOGUN and about 300 feudal lords by giving Jujitsu lessons to their warriors (equivalent to European knights) in preparation for battles. It is understandable that these Jujitsuka lost their position after the old system collapsed.

Jujitsu was a grappling technique that was developed in the Middle Ages, and it was also called Yawara. Ju or Yawara means gentleness and Jutsu means technique. This name was adopted because Jujitsu is a physical technique by which to control an opponent without going against the strength of the opponent, but by utilizing the opponent's strength. This theory of gentleness, the principle of Ju, was essentially the same and could be used whether the warriors wore stiff heavy armor or not. After the 16th century, various Jujitsu schools were created such as the TAKEUCHI School, SEKIGUCHI School, SHIBUKAWA School, KYUSHIN School, YOSHIN School, RYOISHINTO School, etc.

As mentioned before, these schools declined gradually after 1868, and Jujitsu was almost on the point of extinction. Just then, a small young man, by the name of JIGORO KANO, entered the Department of Literature at TOKYO University. Although he was mentally brilliant, his concern was to conquer his physical weakness in order to become a useful citizen in the future. For this reason he became interested in the art of Jujitsu inspite of its declining importance.

Professor Kano studied TENSHIN SHINYO RYU Jujitsu from my grandfather, Hachinosuke Fukuda, and then Masatomo Iso, and Kito Ryu Jujitsu from TSUNETOSHI IIKUBO. His foresight proved correct, his health improved vastly, and in 1881 (at the age of twentytwo) he graduated from TOKYO University with outstanding grades and a physique to match. HE became a professor at the Peer's School which is equivalent to Eaton in England. HE spared time form his busy work schedule as a professor, and eagerly studied the Jujitsu theory which conpletely captivated him. In 1882, he opened a dojo (gymnasium) which he named the KODOKAN and started to train students. The gym was a small room of less than 40 square feet within the EISHOJI ZEN Temple in TOKYO. Gradually, promising students who respected and trusted Professor KAno came to study at the Kodokan. Among these students were SAKUJIRO YOKOYAMA, GISHO YAMASHITA, SHIRO SAIGO, TSUNEJIRO TOMITA, etc. whose names are we11 known by the present day public of Japan as the main characters in the novel, "SUGATA SANSHIRO", Written by TSUNEO TOMITA (TSUNEJIRO TOMITA'S son and 6th degree black belt). Professor KANO'S research on Jujitsu progressed rapidly with the assistance of these students, but the progress was also accompanied by many hardships. By this time, Professor KANO had combined all the good points of Jujitsu and added to these his original ideas to complete his techniques. In addition, he combined his own philosophy into the techniques in order to complete the moral side, and Judo was created in order to cope with the modern conditions. Ju of Judo means "gentleness", and Do means "way." We must realize that this word, "way" means not only technical strength, but also connotes strict moral principles which are essential in striving for self-perfection as a human being.

The Jujitsu specialists who were living from hand to mouth at that time did not listen to Professor KANO's principles, but instead they attempted vigorous opposition to him, claiming that Professor KANO was taking their professions away from them, Many times Professor KANO and his students were challenged with unreasonable methods of combat by the old fashioned Jujitsuka. His breaking of the new ground in Judo did not have the support of the general public, because many citizens who were busy making the change to the new world were indifferent to either Jujitsu or Judo. His hardships were comparable to that of the difficulties experienced by pioneers in many countries. Professor KANO endured and overcame a great many of such hardships.

Professor KANO became the principal of TOKYO University of Education and later became a Senator. In the meantime, the KODOKAN moved to diferent locations in order to accommodate the increasing number of students as Judo became more popular. Today, the KODOKAN is located in KASUGA-CHO, BUNKYO-KU, TOKYO, JAPAN. The main Dojo consists of 500 mats and many smaller Dojo where young students from all over the world eagerly receive training.

In 1923, the Women's Division was started with the thought that the moral elements of Judo would have a great influence not only on women's physical training, but also on character development. Professor KANO passed away in 1938 at the age of seventy-eight, but his lectures to his students are well remembered. "The aim of Judo is to utilize physical and mental strength most effectively. Its training is to understand the true meaning of life through the mental and physical training of attack and defense. You must develop yourself as a person and become a useful citizen to society." "Maximum Efficiency" and "Mutual Prosperity", the concepts left by Professor KANO, are the mottoes of KODOKAN Judo.

 

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