Canon Of Judo

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Author: Kyuzo Mifune
Pub: 1956/58/59/60/60/61 by Seibundo-Shinkosha Publishing
Pages: 245
Ranking:
Out of Print

 


The 'holy grail' of the Judo community, this fascinating book will wreak havoc on your wallet if you can find someone willing to part with it. The first thing noticeable about the book is the hardbound covering, it's a Judogi material! The English is absolutely horrible, a great deal of time is spent teasing out some meaning from some sentences, but the pictures are generally first rate. The most interesting thing about this book is the 'reference' techniques, that you won't find easily elsewhere... such as 'Gansekiotoshi', or 'Dakiage'. Good luck locating a copy!


Table of Contents
CANON OF JUDO
(Principle and Technique)

Contents

GENERAL REMARKS-
MAINLY OF HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT
1.  Historic development ................................. 19
2.  Origination of technique and turning-point
    of principles ........................................ 20
3.  Founding of Kodokan .................................. 22

SPECIAL TREATISE-
MAINLY AS TO INTERPRETATION OF MEANING
   Chapter 1. Intoductory Remarks
     Sec. 1. True meaning of Judo ........................ 23
     Sec. 2. Two basic elements .......................... 25
     Sec. 3. Key to acquirement of Judo .................. 26
   Chapter 2. Three Basic Elements
     Sec. 1. Reason to be concurrent with nature ......... 27
     Sec. 2. Match in Judo ............................... 27
     Sec. 3. Judo is impersonation of truth .............. 28
   Chapter 3. Mysteries of Judo Operation
     Sec. 1. General remarks ............................. 29
     Sec. 2. Five essential points ....................... 30
     Sec. 3. Seven preparatory notions ................... 31
     Sec. 4. Trick ....................................... 33

HINTS BEFORE TRAINING TRICKS
   Chapter 1. Spirit in Saluting
     Sec. 1. Right way of sitting ........................ 36
     Sec. 2. Sitz saluting ............................... 36
     Sec. 3. Stand saluting .............................. 37
   Chapter 2. Posture
           (Natural Posture)
     Sec. 1. Natural proper posture ...................... 37
     Sec. 2. Right-side natural posture .................. 37
     Sec. 3.  Left-side natural posture .................. 37
		   (Self-defense Posture)
     Sec. 1. Self-defense proper posture ................. 38
     Sec. 2. Right-side self-defense posture ............. 38
     Sec. 3. Left-side self-defense posture .............. 38
   Chapter 3. Preparatory and Final Training
     Body protection - How to practise ................... 41
   Chapter 4. Meaning of Posture Breaking
     Sec. 1. Way of breaking and preparatory notion ...... 43
     Sec. 2. Practical traning of breaking posture ....... 43
   Chapter 5. Meaning of Free-play Training .............. 45
   Chapter 6. Meaning of Form ............................ 45
   Chapter 7. Factor in Mastery .......................... 45
   Chapter 8. 'Tsukuri' and 'Kake' ....................... 45
   Chapter 9. Chance and Way to Apply Technique .......... 45
   Chapter 10. Theory of Game ............................ 46

FIVE RRINCIPLES
THE FIRST PRINCIPLE
    1. Deashibarai (Advanced foot sweeping) .............. 48
    2. Hizaguruma (Knee-wheeling) ........................ 50
    3. Ukigoshi (Waist floating) ......................... 51
    4. Sasaetsurikomiashi ................................ 52
    5. Osotogari (Major exterior reaping) ................ 54
    6. Tsurigoshi (Waist hanging) ........................ 56
    7. Taiotoshi (Body falling) .......................... 58
    8. Tsurikomigoshi .................................... 60

THE SECOND PRINCIPLE
    9. Kouchigari (minor interior reaping) ............... 63
   10. Koshiguruma (Waist wheeling) ...................... 65
   11. Kosotogari (Minor exterior reaping) ............... 66
   12. Ogoshi (Major waist) .............................. 68
   13. Seoinage (Over-shoulder throwing) ................. 69
   14. Ouchigari (Major interior reaping) ................ 72
   15. Kosotogake (Minor exterior angling) ............... 74
   16. Haraigoshi (Waist pushing-away) ................... 76

THE THIRD PRINCIPLE
   17. Uchimata (Interior thigh) ......................... 78
   18. Hanegoshi (Waist pushing-up) ...................... 80
   19. Hanemakigoshi (Waist pushing-up and coiling) ...... 82
   20. Harai-tsurikomiashi (Foot sweeping and decoying) .. 83
   21. Tomoenage (Huge-comma-shape throwing) ............. 84
   22. Sukuinage (Scoop throwing) ........................ 86
   23. Ashiguruma (Foot wheeling) ........................ 88
   24. Ushirogoshi (Rear waist) .......................... 90

THE FOURTH PRINCIPLE
   25. Yokoguruma (Side wheeling) ........................ 92
   26. Osotoguruma (Major exterior wheeling) ............. 94
   27. Ukiotoshi (Float dropping) ........................ 96
   28. Utsushigoshi (Waist removing) ..................... 97
   29. Ukewaza (Floating trick) .......................... 98
   30. Taniotoshi (Dale dropping) ....................... 100
   31. Yoko-otoshi (Side dropping) ...................... 101
   32. Yokogake (Side hooking) .......................... 102

THE FIFTH PRINCIPLE
   33. Uranage (Back throwing) .......................... 104
   34. Sumi-otoshi (Corner dropping) .................... 107
   35. Yokowakare (Side parting) ........................ 109
   36. Oguruma (Big wheeling) ........................... 111
   37. Okuri-ashibarai (Sending foot sweeping) .......... 113
   38. Sumigaeshi (Corner tumbling) ..................... 116
   39. Kataguruma (Shoulder wheeling) ................... 117
   40. Sotomakikomi (Exterior rplling-in) ............... 120

KATAME-WAZA
   41. Hon-kesagatame ................................... 124
   42. Kuzushi-kesagatame ............................... 124
   43. Ushiro-kesagatame ................................ 127
   44. Ura-kesagatame ................................... 127
   45. Katagatame ....................................... 127
   46. Kami-shihogatame ................................. 128
   47. Kuzushi-kami-shihogatame ......................... 128
   48. Yoko-shihogatame ................................. 129
   49. Uragatame ........................................ 130
   50. Tate-shihogatame ................................. 131
   51. Kuzushi-tate-shihogatame ......................... 132

SHIME (Wringing)
   52. Juji-shime (Cross wringing) ...................... 134
   53. Hadakajime (Nude wringing) ....................... 136
   54. Katahajime ....................................... 137
   55. Ryotejime (Both hand wringing) ................... 138
   56. Sodeguruma (Sleeve wheeling) ..................... 138
   57. Tsukkomijime (Thrust wringing) ................... 139
   58. Katatejime (One hand wringing) ................... 139
   59. Tawarajime (Straw-bag wringing) .................. 140
   60. Hasamijime (Jamming-in wringing) ................. 141
   61. Okurieri-jime (Lapel-sending wringing) ........... 141
   62. Various reactions to Katame-waza ................. 144

INVERSE TRICKS
   63. Ude-hishigi (Arm enclosing) ...................... 154
   64. Udekujiki (Arm breaking) ......................... 156
   65. Ashi-hishigi (Foot enclosing) .................... 164
   66. Ashikujiki (Foot breaking) ....................... 165
   67. Newaza (Lying trick) ............................. 168

URA-WAZA (Reverse trick)
   Definition of Ura-waza ............................... 178
   Defense, repulsion and variation ..................... 179
   68. Ashibarai ........................................ 179
   69. Kosotogake ....................................... 180
   70. Hizaguruma ....................................... 181
   71. Sasae-tsurikomi-ashi ............................. 182
   72. Kouchigari ....................................... 183
   73. Ouchigari ........................................ 184
   74. Uchimata ......................................... 185
   75. Ukigoshi ......................................... 187
   76. Osotogari......................................... 188
   77. Ogoshi ........................................... 189
   78. Yoko-otoshi ...................................... 190
   79. Harai-tsurikomi-ashi ............................. 191
   80. Seoinage ......................................... 191
   81. Koshiguruma ...................................... 193
   82. Haraigoshi ....................................... 193
   83. Taiotoshi ........................................ 195
   84. Tomoenage ........................................ 196
   85. Ukiotoshi ........................................ 196
   86. Tawaragaeshi ..................................... 197
   87. Sotomakikomi ..................................... 197
   88. Hanegoshi ........................................ 198
   89. Ushirogoshi ...................................... 199
   90. Oguruma .......................................... 200
   91. Ukiwaza .......................................... 200
   92. Kataguruma ....................................... 201
   93. Tsurigoshi ....................................... 201
   94. Obiotoshi and Sukuinage .......................... 202
   95. Sumigaeshi ....................................... 202
   96. Taniotoshi ....................................... 203
   97. Soto-morotegari .................................. 203
   98. Osoto-otoshi ..................................... 204
   99. Dakisutemi ....................................... 204
  100. Tsurikomigoshi ................................... 205
  101. Serial variation ................................. 205

REFERENCE TECHNIQUE
  102. Kakatogaeshi ..................................... 208
  103. Morotegari ....................................... 208
  104. Seoiotoshi ....................................... 209
  105. Tawaragaeshi ..................................... 210
  106. Kakaewake ........................................ 211
  107. Kuchikidaoshi .................................... 212
  108. Osoto-otoshi ..................................... 212
  109. Hikikomigaeshi ................................... 213
  110. Obiotoshi ........................................ 214
  111. Uchimakikomi ..................................... 216
  112. Yama-arashi ...................................... 217
  113. Gansekiotoshi .................................... 218
  114. Ushiroguruma ..................................... 219
  115. Teguruma ......................................... 220
  116. Sotomorote ....................................... 221
  117. Hasamigaeshi ..................................... 222
  118. Tobigoshi ........................................ 222
  119. Dakisutemi ....................................... 223
  120. Dakiage .......................................... 223
  121. Udegaeshi ........................................ 224
  122. Tsubamegaeshi .................................... 225
  123. Tamaguruma ....................................... 226

15 REVERSE FORMS OF THROWING TRICK
  124. Te-waza (Hand trick) ............................. 231
  125. Ashi-waza (Foot trick) ........................... 235
  126. Koshi-waza (Waist trick) ......................... 238

GENERAL RESUSCITATION
  127. Breath Resuscitation ............................. 242
  128. Testicles Resuscitation .......................... 243
  129. Drowned-body Resuscitation ....................... 244

 

INTRODUCTION
GENERAL REMARKS
MAINLY OF HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT

1. Historic Development

It can safely be said that the feats of strength man performs were coeval with the creation of the human beings and that Judo was originated from some of such feats. Judo is characterized, however, with the soundest Japanese specific feature imaginable which values no doubt pure reason and is naive and natural; this is developed gradually to the perfect physical technique worth being proud of in all the world as perfect feats beautified, internal and external. This is attributable to the moral factor of the gist developed, and what Judo has enjoyed in the tradition and culture descended down in Japan.

Of course, there is much difference between the feats of strength of olden days and Judo of today, yet when we refer to the Koji-Ki (Ancient Chronicle) we learn that there existed in ancient Japan a feat of strength not simply aiming at murderous and outrageous fight but completing the strength, physical and spiritual, through mutual under-standing.

In one of the mythological stories in the volume 1 of the Koji-Ki the following is cited:

"Tatemikazuchi and his assistant Amatorifune were dispatched to Ina on the sea-side of Izumo by the sacred order of Amaterasu Ohmikami to persuade in a very serious and solemn attitude Okuni-Nushino-Kami, who had occupied Japan by force, to surrender the land to Amaterasu Ohmikami. Okuni-Nushino-Kami pledged allegiance to them, yet he wished to consult with his two sons, Kotoyonushi-no-Kami and Tate-Minamata-no-Kami, the former agreed to his father's opinion and insisted that the land should be surrendered to the son of Amaterasu Ohmikami, while the latter or Tate-Minagata-no-Kami, appearing with a big stone on hand, said, 'What are you? Stop trying to protest against our occupation of the land! Come on, let's settle the matter by force.' And he stepped towards Tate-Mikazuchi-no-Kami, who stood never shaken but firm. Tate-Mikazuchi-no-Kami then said, 'Well, now I'll show you What I can do,' catching Tate-Minagata-no-Kami quickly by the hand and thrown him down as if throwing a leaf of reed, and then Tate-Minagata-no-Kami ran away."

The attitude, determination and the feats of strength described in this story give a hint of Judo.

In another part of the History of Japan it is recorded that in the 7th year of the reign of' Emperor Suijin (28 B.C.) Tomaketsu-Hayato performed a kind of wrestling. The wrestling in those times was a desperate match and Tomaketsu-Hayato was supposed to be the best wrestler of the age and very arrogant and insolent, but when he played a match with Nomi-no-Sukune by order of the Emperor, he was defeated and kicked down to death. Nomi-no-Sukune is said to be the very founder of Judo.

Japanese wrestling and Judo at the beginning were not distinctive, but wrestling though maintaining Japanese characteristic began gradually to have a factor of a professional feat and a performance, while Judo has developed as an educational and rational exercise.

2. Origination of Technique and Turning-point of Principles

One thousand and a few hundred years or two thousand and a few hundred years had elapsed before Japan was unified and stood as a modern nation, and all the while the strife for power produced samurai known for their force of arms. And their military influence gradually growing was followed by natural development of a variety of martial arts.

Fight with weapons was decided by the final close-combat, and in such cases importance began to be attached to valour and technique, which led to the organization of Jujutsu as martial arms to develop to Judo.

It was from the Tokugawa era on that Jujutsu literature began to be compiled, yet the first record of something like Jujutsu is quoted in Judo-higaku-sho (Important Records of Judo) as "grapple was in vogue since Eisho era." In the Eisho era (1504 -- 20), Ashikaga Yoshi-mitsu was the Shogun in the reign of Emperor Go-Kashiwa-Bara and the Ashikaga era drawing to the closing years. It was the age of civil wars and about 450 years ago.

Next comes Honcho-Bugei-Shoden (Brief History of Military Arts of Japan) by Shigetaka Hitaka, in the volume No. 9 where it is described that Kogusoku was introduced long, long ago and Takenouchi is now reknown for this feat of arms.

Here, Kogusoku indicates Taijutsu, Taido, Jujutsu, Wajutsu, etc. and another name of it is Yawara, which means the Takenouchi Branch initiated by Takenouchi Chumutaku Hisamori in June in the 1st year of Tenmon era. In the Tenmon era (1582 -- 54), Ashikaga Yoshiharu was the Shogun in the reign of Emperor Gonara. Thenceforth, the origin of various branches of Jujutsu and other outlines in chronological order are as follows:

The Honcho-Bugei-Shoden says, "Nobody knows where Araki Muninsai is from and little is known of his deeds, yet his excellent technique in arresting criminals is reknowned." The preface to The Re-start of Araki School shows "this school was originated by Fujiwara Katsumi in the Tensho era when Toyotomi Hideyoshi was in power." However, Fujiwara Katsumi seems to be an imaginary person, and in the List of Originators of Branches of Feats of Arms, it is stated that Araki School is originated by Araki Muninsai. So Araki Muninsai must be the originator of the Branch. The year when the school was formed is not known, but it is estimated to be in the Oda-Toyotomi era (Tensho era, 1573 -- 9). It was in the reign of Emperor Ogimachi and it was when Oda Nobunaga overthrew the Ashikagas and was succeeded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. According to Dobogoyen (the title of a book), Nomura Gen-i of Shinmachi was a disciple of Hitotsubashi Jyokensai, a celebrated master of Jujutsu that time. Thus Gen-i is quoted to have cheered Miyamoto Musashi when the latter was going to visit the soldiers at the front when riots took place at Shimabara in the 15th year of Kan-en. In the same hook, a paragraph says Nomura Gen-i is the originator of Judo school and an expert Jujutsu-man, formerly a disciple uncover Hitotsubashi Jokensai, encl used to live afterwards at Shinmachi in Edo. Sawa Dochi, a disciple of Gen-i is also a good hand at Juki, or Jujutsu and Kiai (or mesmeric power) put together, and resided at Nichome, which proves the fact that at that time there was already a master hand of Juki and that a feat of arms called 'Ju' was prevalent. In the Kan-ei era (1624 -- 43), in the reign of Emperor Go-Mizuno-o and the succeeding Emperor Myosho, Iyemitsu, the 3rd Tokugawa Shogun was then Shogun.

On the other hand, paragraph of the preface to Ju of Shin-shin Branch denote: "From childhood I cherished a desire to master this art, yet had no master" and "I was once ordered to the East Musashi, then there were many Ju-men." This book entitled 'Ju of Shin-shin Branch' was published in May in the 8th year of Kan-en by Jushin in commemoration of Inauguration of Sekiguchi-Shinshin Branch, thus it is obvious that in Kan-ei era or thereabouts, what was called 'Ju' was prevalent. Shibukawa Rangoro Yoshikata, a senior disciple of Sekiguchi Hachiro-zaemon, the second-generation master of Sekiguchi Branch, originated Shibukawa School art, and in those days promulgation of Jujutsu was made by many new schools of Jujutsu. Then a Chinese Chen Tsu U came over to Japan in the 2nd year of Manji (1659) in the reign of Emperor Go-Sei-En with Iyetsuna as Shogun, and he got naturalized and died here in the 11th year of Kanmon (1670) in the reign of Emperor Reigen with Iyetsuna as the 4th Shogun. While Chen@ was in Edo (present Tokyo) he resided temporarily at the Kokuseiji Temple at Azabu and one day incidentally lectured a Chinese origin of feats similar to Ju to Fukuno Hichirouemon, Isomi Iirozaemon, Miura Yojiuemon and others, lordless samurai residing at the non-converts' dormitory. Stimulated by the story, the three samurai devised various ways, especially Fukuno studied, contrived and opened a new branch, Fukuno Branch, which sometimes was called Ryoi-shinto Branch and remained with Miura Branch originated by Miura Yojiuemon, while from Fukuno Branch was founded Kito Branch later or Terada Masashige, started Kito Branch and Yoshimura Hyosuke, Terada's disciple and Horiuchi Jidaku, Yoshimura's disciple, were all celebrated Judo-men, especially Horiuchi who never got married but endeavored to promulgate Jujutsu all his life, and his senior pupils Terada Ichiemon of Kyoto and Takino Yugyo of Edo were reknowned all over Japan. Hamano held an arena at Misuji-machi, Asakusa, and his disciples numbered 3,000. Thenceforth Kito Rranch was widely spread.

Hitaka Shigetaka published Honcho-Bugei-Shoden (History of the Feats of Arms in Japan) during Shotoku era (1711 -- 15 A.D.) when Iyenobu, the 6th Shogun and Iyetsugu, the 7th Shogun ruled. In the volume 10 of it he tells, "According to 'Secrecy of Pugilism,' modern Jujutsu is what is termed pugilism in 'Record of Feats of Arms' and in olden times this was called 'Tebaku.' To Japan, Cheng Tsu U, a Chinese, introduced this art in recent years, etc." Thus, Cheng Tsu U is said to be the originator of Jujutsu. There were, however, various branches coming from Fukuno School, especially Kito Branch was popular and all of them were fancied more authoritative to induce the public at large to believe that the secrecy of each branch was introduced from foreign countries. But this was a wrong and superficial idea in those times, for such idea ignores the old-established fact and deep-founded idea. As to limits of Jujutsu no idea is fixed and definite: I quote the statement by Master Kano Jigoro as follows:

"Training how to wring the neck, to twist the arm, or to kick or thrust is sometimes called Jujutsu, and the exercise of throwing only is, too, termed Jujutsu, and on the other hand, body trick, atemi (body attack), vital spots attack, Judo, Kogusoku, or grasping of arms, pugilism, blow by palm and other such terms are Jujutsu just the same. But Kogusoku or arm grasping generally means training how to arrest, while body trick or Judo generally means the training how to grapple with armors for throwing. In the aggregate, Jujutsu could be defined as an art or technique to attack barehanded or with a short weapon or defend himself from an opponent bare-handed or with the weapon." It may be noted here that the word Judo so termed by Master Kano means the one already used in Tokugawa era and in fact an alias of Jujutsu through transitional stage up to Judo of today, but entirely different from what we imply nowadays. Though there were so many Jujutsu schools, best known are, besides those above-referred-to, Yoshin, Shin-shin-do, Kyushin, Yuiga, Teiho-san, Muso, Chokushin, Seigo, Kanshin, Isei Jitoku Tenshin, Tenshin Shinyo schools and other branches.

3. Founding of Kodokan

Through the Meiji Restoration, feudalistic administration was abolished and the people were elated with the so-called 'civilization.' Naturally, in the early years in the Meiji era, martial arts together with the old customs went out of vogue as being stale and awkward, and by the celebrated masters only they were kept. About then, there lived at Daikucho, Nihonbashi, Fukuda Hachinosuke, once a master at the Institute of Martial Arts in the Tokugawa era and a celebrated master of Tenshin Shinyo School who unable to earn his livelihood by teaching Jujutsu only took in the bone-setting as his occupation. Kano Jigoro, who had taken much interest in Jujutsu in his early days, studied Jujutsu under Fukuda, while the former was 18 years old, and after Fukuda's death he continued his study and training under Ishizue Masatomo who had an arena at Otamaga-ike, Kanda. Here Kano made himself master of the secret principles. However, Ishizue, too, died in the 14th year of Meiji, so Kano received instruction under Iikubo Kohei, a great master of Kito School, and learned a great deal under him. Originally, in Tenshin Shinyo School, body attack and folding and fighting of body and arms are regarded as its basis, while the characteristic of Kito School was throwing technique, and the Kodokan Judo, originated by Master Kano owes very much to the above two schools for the foundation of the technique.

Master Kano graduated from the Imperial University of Tokyo in the year of Meiji, but, not satisfactory to possess himself all what he had acquired through his study and training of Jujutsu, moved his abode in the 15th year of Meiji to Eishoji Temple at Shitaya, where he originated Judo out of Jujutsu which he had much reformed. He started Judo with much broader moral-culture added to martial art, and taught young disciples. In fact, this was the very beginning of Kodokan and Master Kano was 23 years of age. The exercise hall was only a 10-mat room occupying part of the temple and the trainees numbered only nine in all. The reason why Master Kano originated Kodokan Judo was that whereas the Jujutsu of various schools or branches as feat of arms which so far existed had their own characteristics and defects in many points, and their direct aims were solely to acquire the ways to attack and defend. So he desired to make it not only a feat of arms, but also a means to help physical and spiritual training to contribute most effectively in the cause of educational and cultural acquirements. The exercise hall at the Eishoji Temple was in a little while removed to Minami-jinbocho, Kanda, then to Kami-nibancho, Koji-machi, and then to Fujimicho, Kojimachi, and afterwards through Shimo-Tomizakacho, Koishikawa, and Sakashitamachi, Otsuka, until in January, the 9th year of Showa (1934), at the present site near Suido-bashi the Great Kodokan Hall was founded. Really within about fifty years, a small arena of 10-mat room developed to a gigantic 514-mat hall with trainees numbering several hundred thousands. Furthermore, at present, Judo seems to be fascinating the people all over the world being diffused in the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Germany, Italy, the Soviet Union, etc. and after the War, the true merits of Judo are increasingly appreciated and have amounted to one of the foremost elements of Japanese culture.

"The way to employ mental and physical strength most effectively is proper Judo" is a compact and laconic expression briefly indicative of Kodokan Judo, and the gist of it is the effective use of energy aiming at mutual prosperity, or more legibly the answer to "What is Judo?," "Ju-no-michi" or "Way of Ju." 'Ju' means "being natural" or in other words "way which is natural and accords with the truth of the Universe and the one the human beings have to follow." Also, 'Ju' may mean "anything reasonable, just and honorable, accordingly noble: namely, the realization of Truth, Good and Beauty. To show Judo is by means of technique, which is acquired by technical training based on the scientific study." This can also be said to be a direct pursuit after truth, which appears among the activities of human beings with well-matched willpower and physical strength.

 

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